Tel Kudadi

Tel Kudadi is a mound that sits on the northern bank of the Yarkon estuary to the Mediterranean Sea, today within the boundaries of Tel Aviv. In the past, the Yarkon was a serious obstacle for those who wanted to cross the country on a north-south axis and the main crossing points were at the sources of the Yarkon in the Afek region in the east and the Yarkon estuary in the west. The location of the mound on the spillway gave its occupants control over the western passage. The mound was excavated in several salvage excavations in 1937-1938, 1941 and 1969 mainly due to the construction of the Reading Power Station. The bulk of the excavations were conducted in the 1930s and led by Eliezer Suknik and Shmuel Yavin from the Hebrew University. Remains of a citadel from the Iron Age were discovered on the site. The citadel was rectangular but only two of its walls were preserved, one of them 33 meters long, and six rooms were found next to the citadel walls. A citadel wall from a later phase was found adjacent to the first citadel wall. The mound excavators dated the first phase of the citadel to the 10th-9th century BCE, i.e. the days of the Kingdom of Israel, and the second phase of the citadel to the 8th c. BCE and thus also the date of its destruction. From this they concluded that it was an Israeli citadel that was destroyed by the Assyrians when they conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 732 BCE. Later researchers, Fantalkin and Tal, redated the first phase of the citadel to the second half of the 8th c. BCE, the second phase for the first half of the 7th c. BCE and the destruction of the citadel and its abandonment in the middle of this century. According to the initial dating of the citadel, the researchers concluded that it belonging to the Kingdom of Israel and its purpose was to protect the Yarkon settlements from attacks from the sea and that the citadel was destroyed when the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel. The later dates cannot correspond to such a historical reconstruction, and therefore Fantalkin and Tal concluded that it was built during the Assyrian rule in Israel as part of a system of citadels and trading posts that ensured trade in the empire along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and was abandoned when the Assyrians withdrew from the country. Remains of activity in the Chalcolithic period (6th-5th millennium BCE), the Early Bronze (4th-late 3rd millennium BCE), the Middle Bronze (2000-1600 BCE) and the Persian period (530-332 BCE) were also found on the mound, but it is not clear what the characteristics were. A pool with a mosaic floor was discovered from the Byzantine period (4th-7th c. CE). In the First World War, the British forces captured the Yarkon near Tel Kudadi as part of the Battle of the Yarkon and after the battle they place a commemorative column on the hill.