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Declaration of Cyrus

An inscription containing a proclamation of Cyrus the King of Persia allowing the Jews who were exiled to Babylon to return to the Land of Israel

Destruction of the first temple

The destruction of Jerusalem and the First Temple, babylonian exile

Sennacherib's campaign

Sennacherib King of Assyria's campaign against Judah and King Hezekiah

Destruction of Samaria

Destruction of Samaria

Tel Dan inscription

Inscription describing the victory of the king of Aram (Hazael) over Israel and Judah.

First non-Biblical evidence for the "House of David"

Battle of Qarqar

853 BC An inscription with a description of a battle between the Assyrian army and an alliance of 12 kings that includes Ahab, the king of Israel First extra-biblical evidence of an Israeli king

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Shishak's campaign

An inscription describing the war campaign of Pharaoh Shushank I to the Land of Israel An extra-biblical mention that also appears in your book

Merneptah Stele

An inscription describing the war campaign of the pharaoh Meranpetah (son of Ramses II) to the Land of Israel

First non-biblical mention of the name "Israel"

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  • Archaeologists Uncover Jerusalem’s Monumental Fortifications

    21.07.24
    Who divided Jerusalem in two? A massive fortification discovered in the excavations of the Givati parking lot in the city of David in the National Park that circles the walls of Jerusalem solves a 150-year-old riddle
  • Discovery of ancient textile fragment sheds light on priestly garments

    18.07.24
    The 3,800-year-old fabric piece, found in caves in the Judean Desert, was colored using dye from oak scale insects, which researchers believe to be the "scarlet worm" mentioned in biblical texts.
  • When Did King Hezekiah Reign? Controversial Artifacts May Resolve Biblical Controversy

    02.07.24
    The Bible contradicts itself on the regnal years of the king of Judah who rebelled against Assyria. Study of seal impressions from the antiquities market claims to break the impasse

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Atlit
Atlit
[youtube_drone url="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNrDT5mDoEE"]

Ancient Atlit is located about 20 kilometers south of Haifa, beneath and around modern Atlit. Part of the site is submerged underwater. The site revealed a prehistoric village from the Neolithic period (late 7th millennium BCE). In the 1st millennium BCE, a Phoenician settlement existed there, continuing until the Hellenistic period. The Crusaders built a fortress called "Castellum Peregrinorum" on the sea spit at Atlit (now within a restricted military area) to protect pilgrims. Subsequently, the Crusaders also settled outside the fortress, mainly on the remains of the Phoenician settlement.

Significant findings at the site include a port and a gate with two towers attributed to the Iron Age, and the remains of a prehistoric settlement discovered about 400 meters offshore. Among the notable archaeological discoveries is evidence of one of the world's earliest cases of tuberculosis, found through the analysis of bones.

Identification and Research History at Atlit

Atlit was identified with Kartah of the Tribe of Zebulon (Joshua 21:34), because during the Roman period, it was part of a territory called Certah. The name probably derives from the Phoenician word for city: "Karta"). Scholars believe the later name "Atlit" is derived from Queen Athaliah of Judah. The discovery of a partial inscription with the letters 'Ayin' and 'Tet' in Phoenician script supports this theory. 2 km. away from Atlit is the site of ruin of Kertah, also known as Khirbet Dustrey, where there are mostly Phoenician remains. The site may correspond to a Phoenician port known as Sarfata or Ader.

Plan of the northern harbour. (Source: The Archaeological Survey of Israel)

Over the years, Atlit has been the site of numerous surveys and archaeological excavations. The first excavation took place between 1932-1936 and 1938, led by British archaeologist Cedric Norman Johns, head of the Mandatory Department of Antiquities. This excavation focused on the Phoenician settlement. The harbor was discovered in the 1960s by the Israel Exploration Society. In the 1970s, the harbor was surveyed by the Center for Maritime Studies at the University of Haifa, led by Professor Avner Raban and Dr. Linder. Subsequently, Dr. Haggai Erlich dated the harbor using carbon-14 analysis. In 2002-2003, the harbor site was excavated by Professor Raban and Dr. Erlich.

Sunken Neolithic village (7th millennium BC)

The remains of the village were discovered approximately 400 meters offshore from Atlit, at a depth of 8-12 meters. The findings date back to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (7th millennium BCE). The village likely stood on the southern bank of the Oren River.

Underwater excavations yielded numerous artifacts, including the remains of buildings and one of the world's oldest water wells. The villagers engaged in fishing, cattle and sheep herding, and wheat cultivation. A unique structure consisting of several large kurkar stones with cup marks arranged in a circle suggests ritual activity at the site. Additional findings include bone tools, basalt grinding bowls, numerous flint tools for processing hides and meat, and arrowheads for hunting.

Near the village houses, individual graves containing about 15 skeletons were discovered. A study by Professor Israel Hershkovitz of the Tel Aviv University School of Medicine identified one of the skeletons as one of the earliest known cases of tuberculosis in the world.

In 1985, a maritime survey near Atlit led by archaeologist Ehud Galili revealed a prehistoric settlement. Several excavation seasons were conducted at the Neolithic village of Atlit in 1986, 1989, 1990, and 1993 by the Israel Antiquities Authority and the University of Haifa under Galili's direction.

Atlit-Yam, Ritual structure made of stones, artist's reconstruction
By Hanay, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15044105

The Phoenician Settlement at Atlit (1st millennium BC)

The Phoenician settlement at Atlit was relatively small and included a port, south of the main Phoenician port at Dor. It was built over earlier remains from the Middle and Late Bronze periods (2nd millennium BC). Excavations uncovered a gate with two towers and a cemetery that featured a jar burial for a child. Evidence of burial practices typical of the Phoenician world includes cremations from the 8th century BCE and earth burials from the 6th century BC. This settlement persisted until the Persian and Hellenistic periods (6th-1st centuries BC).

The port was constructed around a natural bay sheltered from the winds and included a 38-meter-long pier. The construction technique of the port is recognized as Phoenician, with similar methods found at several 11th-century BCE sites in Lebanon. This technique involved wash basins and collection pools designed to prevent sediment from accumulating at the bottom of the port. Stones and pebbles brought from northern Syria and Cyprus indicate the Phoenicians at Atlit had trade connections across the Mediterranean basin. Researchers suggest the port was built in response to the increased demand for metal imports by the Kingdom of Israel in exchange for agricultural products.

The letters 𐤏𐤕 (Et) carved in the rock
מאת אסף.צ מוויקיפדיה העברית - הועבר מ- he.wikipedia לוויקישיתוףעל ידי מתניה., נחלת הכלל, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9497957

Crusader Period at Atlit

This period is the most prominent and extensive in the history of ancient Atlit. A Crusader settlement was established, and on the peninsula stood a fortress named "Castellum Peregrinorum" (Pilgrims' Castle), known in French as "Château Pèlerin." The Crusader presence began in 1103 CE. In the area formerly known as "Khirbet Dustrey" (mentioned in the 4th century CE), a small fortress called "Le Destroit" was built to protect pilgrims en route to Jerusalem. Near the fortress lies an ancient kurkar quarry, where the letters 'A' and 'T' were found carved in ancient Phoenician script, possibly marking the boundaries of the settlement of Atlit.

The small fortress stood for about a hundred years until the broader Crusader settlement at Atlit, during which a large castle was constructed on the peninsula. Historian Oliver of Paderborn noted that a cache of Phoenician coins was likely discovered during construction, which helped finance part of the castle's building costs.

The fortress withstood a massive Muslim attack in 1220, prompting the Crusaders to settle around it. Excavations revealed a church, residential buildings, stables, and granaries. By 1265, the Mamluk ruler Baybars destroyed much of the fortress, but most residents remained. The castle was abandoned in 1291. The upper layer of Jones' excavations at Atlit uncovered pottery and coins associated with the Templar presence from 1217 to 1295 CE. Under the Ottoman Empire, a significant portion of the fortress was dismantled for secondary construction purposes.

1850s sketch showing the town within the fortifications.
By Charles William Meredith van de Velde - File:Le_Pays_d'Israel.pdf, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=95021738

Sources:

Arad, H. 2013. Phoenician Atlit and Its Newly-Excavated Harbour: a Reassessment. Tel Aviv Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. Pp. 43-60.

Arad, H. 2010. Report on Underwater Excavation at the Phoenician Harbour, Atlit, Israel. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 39.2: Pp. 278–285.

Arad H. and Artzy M. 2007. The Harbor of Atlit in Northern Canaanite/Phoenician Context. Near Eastern Archaeology , Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 75-84.

C.N.Johns, Atlit. In  Stern, E. (ED). 1993.. Encyclopedia of Archeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Vol 1. Pp 112-118 The Israel Exploration Society. Carta. Jerusalem. 

Raban, A. and Linder, E. MARITIME 'ATLIT . In  Stern, E. (ED). 1993.. Encyclopedia of Archeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Vol 1. Pp 118-120. The Israel Exploration Society. Carta. Jerusalem. 

Biblical Hiking map

Atlit
Tell Jenin
Tell Jenin

Tell Jenin, also known as 'Tel at-Tel,' 'Tel an-Nawar' (Gypsies' Mound), and 'Majna' (Cemetery), is an archaeological site located in the heart of the city of Jenin, at the northern end of Samaria. The mound was first identified by Philip Guy, head of the Mandatory Antiquities Department, in 1926. In the nearly 100 years since then, most of the mound has been gradually destroyed due to local construction, and only a small portion remains studied. The estimated original size of the mound was about 30 dunams. Many scholars have proposed identifying Jenin with the biblical Levite city of Ein Ganim (Joshua 19:21; 21:29), although some believe Ein Ganim should be identified with Khirbat Beit Jan near modern Yavniel. However, most agree that Jenin should be identified with Beit HaGan, through which King Ahaziah of Judah passed during his escape from Jehu ben Namshi (2 Kings 9:27).

Research history

The site was first surveyed by Yosef Porat in 1968 as part of the emergency survey conducted in Judea, Samaria, and the Golan following the Six-Day War. A year later, the site was surveyed again by Nehemia Tsori. In subsequent years, several limited rescue excavations were conducted at the site on behalf of the archaeology department.

From 1977 to 1983, the edge of the mound was excavated by a delegation from Birzeit University led by the American archaeologist Albert Glock. Glock was murdered by an unknown assailant in 1992, before he could publish the full excavation report. Some of his students published individual studies on the excavation in the following years, but a final report has yet to be published.

In 2003 or 2004, an ancient tomb was excavated near the mound by the Palestinian Antiquities Authority, and there was likely a spot excavation at the mound itself during this period. In 2016 and 2017, Meir Rotter from Bar-Ilan University conducted two assessments of the site's condition.

The site from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age

Tell Jenin was first occupied in a limited manner during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (7500-6000 BC), likely serving as an agricultural site engaged in early forms of international trade. There was probable activity during the Chalcolithic period (4500-3700 BC). In the Early Bronze Age 1 (around 3700 BC), the mound was artificially raised to prevent flooding. During this era, the site experienced periods of abandonment and resettlement until it was deserted around 3300 BC. While clear evidence of settlement from the Intermediate Bronze Age onwards is lacking, the site might have been fortified during the Middle Bronze Age, with potsherds from these periods suggesting some level of activity.

Some researchers propose that Jenin is 'Kina,' listed among the Canaanite cities conquered by Thutmose III of Egypt in the mid-15th century BC (Late Bronze Age period). Additionally, many scholars identify Tell Jenin with 'Gina,' mentioned in the Amarna letters (late 14th century BC) as the city where Labaya, the king of Shechem, was killed, leading to its attack by his sons, possibly linked to the Apiru. The site was certainly rebuilt in the 13th century BC, as evidenced by the discovery of a bronze axe, a gold earring, and a glass bottle from this period.

Iron Age and later

The site continued to exist at the beginning of Iron Age 1 (12th century BC), with evidence suggesting that some inhabitants engaged in mollusc fishing. Trade relations during this period are indicated by the presence of Cypriot and Philistine vessels. Additional finds include houses, a bronze needle, a basalt grinding stone, and various Israelite tools, though the specific identity of the site's occupants remains unknown. By the end of the 12th century BC, the edge of the mound was abandoned and only resettled in the Byzantine period. The settlement at the top of the mound was likely renewed during Iron Age 2, though this area remains unexcavated. Artifacts from this period, as well as from the Persian, Hellenistic, and later periods, have been discovered.

Sources:

י' פורת, סקר שומרון ב' [כת"י שלא פורסם, נמצא אצל המחבר], 1968.

נ' צורי, נחלת יששכר: סקר ארכיאולוגי של הגלבוע ומורדותיו, עמק יזרעאל והגליל התחתון המזרחי, ירושלים תשל"ז.

A. Glock, ‘Jenin’, in: Anchor Bible Dictionary, 3, pp. 678-680.

A. Glock, ‘News from the Field: Excavations in Jenin’, The Biblical Archaeologist 40 (1977), p. 99.

H. J. Salem, Early Bronze Age Settlement System and Village Life in the Jenin Region/Palestine: A Study of Tell Jenin Stratigraphy and Pottery Traditions (Ph.D. dissertation, Universiteit Leiden), 2006.

Netiv Ha-‘Asara
Netiv Ha-‘Asara

Location

Netiv Ha-‘Asara is a site in Israel where a salvage excavation was conducted in Moshav Netiv Ha-‘Asara prior to construction work. The site is located on two adjacent kurkar hills to the west of Nahal Shiqma .

IAA

History

Settlement remains were uncovered that date from the Iron Age, Persian period, and Byzantine period. The site was abandoned in a violent event during the Persian period, but it was repopulated during the Byzantine period after centuries of being buried by dune sand .

Excavation

Five excavation areas (A–F) were opened on the two hills, yielding significant findings. Area A revealed two settlement strata on the eastern slope of the southern hill. Area B, also on the southern hill's eastern slope, contained remains of a building with four rooms. Area C at the top of the southern hill revealed an Iron Age and a Persian period settlement, as well as Byzantine period tombs. Area D contained four vaulted tombs on the northern hill's eastern slope. Area F had a refuse pit that yielded Roman-period glass, along with remains from the Byzantine and Persian periods .

IAA

Findings

The excavation yielded pottery, glassware, stone tools, and metal objects from various periods. The pottery dates from the Iron Age II and III, Persian, and Byzantine periods. Glass finds were from the Roman and Byzantine periods, discovered in Area F and Area D respectively. Stone tools were generally used for household food preparation. Metal finds, primarily from the Persian period, included 11 arrowheads. Evidence of violent events during the Persian period was indicated by burnt layers, bronze arrowheads, and pottery left in situ .

Sources

Hadashot Arkheologiyot Excavations and Surveys in Israel Volume 135 Year 2023 Netiv Ha-‘Asara

Yael Abadi-Reiss

Netiv Ha-‘Asara
Es Suwweida
Es Suwweida

Es Suwweida is a rectangular fortress (70 x 70 m.) located in Chen Forest, in between Zikhron Ya'akov and Amikam, in Manasseh Heights. The fort is surrounded by a wall and lies on top of an hill rising 161 m. above sea level, overlooking its environment. From this hill flows the stream of Snonit, a tributary of Nahal Taninim which flows into the sea near Tel Mevorakh In each of the four corners of the fortress, there's a tower. Structures dated to the Iron Age have been identified as well.

The pottery sherds discovered at the site are dated to the Iron Age, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods.

Sources:

"Es Suwweida" (Site 17) in Olami, Y, Sender, S and Oren, E. 2011. Map of Binyamina - 48 The Archeological Survey of Israel

Horvat Lavnin
Horvat Lavnin
[youtube_drone url="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XffhzIfrTMI"]

Hurvat Lavnin extend on a hill on the west bank of the Nahal Khaklil in Adolum Park and are surrounded by fertile valleys

It is sometimes identified with the city of Kaszib in Nahal Yehuda (Yohshua 15, Md.) which is mentioned together with Keila and Merasha, and is also mentioned in the inherited prophecy of Micah together with Mershet and Gat Mersha and Udom. Another possibility of identification is the well-known "white" in the Shefala (although the accepted identification is in Tel Burna).

By Davidbena - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=84225656
Horvat Lavnin
Tell Abu Zarad
Tell Abu Zarad

Location and Identification

The site of Tell Abu Zarad is a major mound in central Palestine at the border between Samaria and Judea, on the main north-south route (R60) connecting Tell Balata/ancient Shechem with Jerusalem/ancient Urushalimum, and Ras el-'Ain/ancient Aphek to the west with Beitin/ancient Bethel to the east.
The nearest pre-classical site to the south-east so far known is Khirbet Seilun/ancient Shiloh, which however seems partly later in terms of general occupation in respects of AZ.
AZ was already known from surveys in the 19th and 20th centuries and it was convincingly identified by Father F.-M. Abel o.p. with Biblical Tappuah (Josh. 12:17; 15:33; 16:8; 17:7-8)

Occupational outline of the site

Archaeological data concerning the site occupation in a chronological perspective were obtained by surface finds and survey, as well as by preliminary stratigraphic observations. There are, however, several historical sources which provide further information to be matched with archaeological evidence. They will be kept separated in the first stage of the project, as the site is untouched, and a fully unconstrained archaeological approach seems mostly required and appropriate.
Data provided by surface prospection and collection were mapped over the site topography to show the extension of human presence in different periods. The occupational range of AZ resulted from the Early Bronze Age to the Ottoman Period, i.e. from around 3000 BC to 1900 AD, with some somewhat significant gaps in the Intermediate Bronze Age, as well as in Middle Bronze I.
Basing upon surface finds, ground and underground investigations, a provisional draft of the site occupational history may be the following:

Period I – Early Bronze Age rural (unfortified) settlement (EB II-III, 3000-2500 BC)
Period II – Intermediate Bronze Age (tombs on the nearby hills) (EB IV, 2300-2000 BC)
Period III – Middle Bronze Age fortified city (MB II-III, 1750-1550 BC)
Period IV – Late Bronze Age town (LB I-III, 1550-1200 BC)
Period V – Iron Age settlement and city (IA I-II, 1200-586 BC)
Period VI – Hellenistic-Roman garrison (2nd century BC - 3rd century AD)/ar-Raja Burj
Period VII – Byzantine installation (4th - 7th century AD)
Period VIII – Islamic rural installation (Umayyad, Ayyubid, Mamluk, 7th - 16th century AD)
Period IX – Ottoman monument (17th - early 20th century AD)
Period X – 20th century (before Second World War).

Khirbet Jedur
Khirbet Jedur

Khirbet Jedor, located near the village of Beit Omer in the Judean Mountains, and north of Halhol and Beit Tzur, which are mentioned together with the city in the biblical description

Khirbet Rabud
Khirbet Rabud

Khirbat Rabud is an ancient mound located on the bed of the Hebron stream, about 8 km northwest of the Palestinian village of Samua and about 3 km west of Etniel in the south of Mount Hebron. As mentioned, the mound is identified by the researchers with the biblical city of Dvir.

hatul, CC BY-SA 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Qumran
Qumran
[youtube_drone url="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrfyhcuL3hk"]

Location and Identification

Qumran is located on the western shore of the Dead Sea, identifiable with 'Ir (City of Salt)

mentioned in the Bible (Joshua 15:61-62).

History

Iron age

Early Settlement: The earliest settlement dates back to the Israelite period, with structures from the 8th to the early 6th century BCE, destroyed during the fall of the Kingdom of Judah.

Hellenistic to Roman Period

Resettlement: After centuries of abandonment, Qumran was resettled, reusing the remnants of Israelite buildings. The community flourished during the Hellenistic period, particularly under John Hyrcanus and Alexander Jannaeus, with significant expansions and the construction of communal buildings.

Destruction and Reoccupation: The site was struck by an earthquake and a fire around 31 BCE, leading to a temporary abandonment. It was reoccupied shortly after, continuing its communal lifestyle until its destruction in 68 CE during the Jewish Revolt against Rome.

Excavations

  • The first Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered by Bedouin shepherds in 1947 in Cave 1, near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea.
  • In 1949, the site of the cave was excavated by a joint expedition from the Jordan Department of Antiquities, the Palestine Archaeological Museum (now the Rockefeller Museum), and the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Française.
  • Khirbet Qumran, located about 1 km south of the cave and slightly farther west of the Dead Sea, was excavated under the same auspices in five successive campaigns from 1951 to 1956. The last campaign also surveyed the region between Qumran and 'Ein Feshkha, about 3 km to the south, where a building complex was excavated in 1958.

Findings

  • Community Life: Excavations revealed a complex of buildings, including a large dining hall/refectory, pottery workshop, scriptorium, and elaborate water systems suggesting ritual purification practices. An extensive cemetery with over 1,100 graves indicates a significant, organized community.
  • Scrolls and Manuscripts: The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls near Qumran in caves has been pivotal. These manuscripts provide insights into the community's beliefs, practices, and the sectarian life that distinguished them from mainstream Judaism.
  • Connection with the Essenes: Most scholars link the Qumran community with the Essenes, a conclusion supported by the archaeological evidence and the descriptions by Pliny the Elder of the Essenes living in isolation near the Dead Sea.

Sources

Stern, Ephraim-New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land 4-Israel Exploration Society (1993)

Biblical hiking map

Qumran
Tel Nissa
Tel Nissa
[youtube_drone url="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TO7gi1FDyX8"]

Tel Nisha, also called Tel Neshem and in Arabic Tel al-Manshiya, is a prominent, medium-sized hill, east of Highway 200 - from the direction of Ein Hanziv towards Kibbutz Neve-Eitan. The mound was documented by the British Mandate and surveyed by Nehemiah Tzuri. The mound was not excavated.

The mound is part of dozens of mounds from biblical times that are in the Beit Shean Valley, the most important of which are Beit Shean and Tel Rehov. Prof. Mazar defines all the cities around Tel Rehov from the royal period as "daughters of Rehov". Tel Nisha was ruled during the monarchy by Tel Rehov and indeed its ceramics are the same as Rehov in the 9th - 10th centuries BC.

The height of the mound is about 10-15 meters and its size is about 5 dunams. To the southwest of the hill spring springs, which form Nahal Eitan and Adi al-Manashia, which descends to the Jordan from the east. The spurs basically crown half of the mound, which makes it impassable from these directions. Pottery from the Early Bronze I, Late Bronze, and Iron I-II periods were discovered in the mound. And it seems that it was some kind of administrative building. N. Tzuri writes: on the eastern and southern slopes of the hill, stone and brick walls are exposed, while in the extreme southern corner a brick structure is exposed, like a tower (Nehemiah Tzuri 1962).

It is possible to notice the remains of mud walls in the western upper part of the mound, apparently the remains of the city walls from the middle of the ninth century that were destroyed by King Hazal of Aram-Damascus. It is impossible to prove this because there are other Iron Age ruins in the Beit Shean Valley, but the assumption is reasonable in light of the nearby Tel Rehov excavations. It is possible that in the future the mud bricks will be taken for a magnetic test that will determine if it is a Hazal ruin, a placer discovery or a Shishak.

Candles, a pitcher with a strainer, ceramics painted in wild green, cooking pot handles, two alabaster vessels, two bowls, a zoomorphic vessel, limestone egg-shaped loom weights and a local alabaster and a bronze arrow were found in the mound. The mound is very well preserved, and from it there is an impressive view of the entire Beit Shean valley and towards the Jordan. The site appears in the archive file of the Mandatory Antiquities Authority, and it is noted that the upper part of the mound is cultivated (1932). Below is part of what was written on the mound:

An archaeological survey from 1932 reported: a fairly large mound that appears to have pottery in it from the 3rd millennium BC. The upper part of the mound is cultivated. There is a small spring of water that originates and surrounds the site from the southwest and from there continues to flow eastward and essentially creates a natural fortification / moat with Water in part of the mound. It is possible that there are graves on the sides of the mound in the southwest direction. The surveyor Ras added: "Three large and rough stones that were built as part of a wall were exposed by the influence of the heavy rain on the eastern corner of the upper end. Russ probably meant an Iron Age II mudbrick wall at this location.
This is probably the outer wall of the old upper settlement. The reviewers concluded: "recommended excavation".

Currently an excavation is been don by Yoav Vaknin

Tel Nissa
Mysterious 2,800-year-old Channels in Jerusalem
Mysterious 2,800-year-old Channels in Jerusalem
The connection between the kingdom of Sheba and Israel
The connection between the kingdom of Sheba and Israel
Interregional trade at Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus
Interregional trade at Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus
The reason that precipitated the collapse of the Hittite Empire
The reason that precipitated the collapse of the Hittite Empire
Tablets in the Amorite language
Tablets in the Amorite language

לוחות שנמצאו בעיראק מספקים הצצה לשפה האמורית, שממנה התפתחה העברית

The Siouan pool will open to the public
The Siouan pool will open to the public

בריכת השילוח העתיקה תיחשף במלואה מחדש

A rare treasure from the Maccabean period
A rare treasure from the Maccabean period

במדבר יהודה נחשפה עדות למרד המקבים ביוונים

A projectile from 2,200 years ago
A projectile from 2,200 years ago

קליע עופרת נדיר, הנושא כתובת מאגית ביוונית, התגלה ביבנה

The earliest sentence written in the alphabet has been discovered
The earliest sentence written in the alphabet has been discovered

המשפט התגלה על מסרק עשוי שנהב בחפירות בעיר הכנענית לכיש.

Dating using magnetic fields
Dating using magnetic fields

שיטה מהפכנית לתארוך אתרים ארכיאולוגיים בעזרת מדידה של הכיוון והעוצמה של השדה המגנטי של כדור הארץ כפי שאלה "הוקלטו" בזמן שריפת האתרים

National parks
National parks
Balaam / Deir Alla Inscription
Balaam / Deir Alla Inscription
The Broad Wall of Jerusalem
The Broad Wall of Jerusalem
Ekron Inscription
Ekron Inscription
By Oren Rozen - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=46928974

כתובת עקרון התגלתה בחפירות עקרון ב1996, בשרידיו של מקדש המתוארך לרבע הראשון של המאה ה-7 לפנה"ס, מהתקופה בה עקרון היתה ממלכת חסות של האימפריה האשורית. הכתובת, אשר התגלתה על רצפת האזור הטקסי במקדש, חרוטה על אבן גיר שמידותיה38 x 61  ס"מ ומשקלה הוא 105 ק"ג. השפה של הכתובת היא בניב פלשתי של הכתב הפיניקי.

הכתובת נחשבת לאחד הממצאים החשובים ביותר בעקרון. זהו הטקסט הראשון שזוהה כ"פלשתי" שזוהה במחקר. במהלך השנים היו חילוקי דעות במחקר הארכיאולוגי לגבי מיקומה של עקרון הפלישתית, היו שזיהו את עקרון בתל קטרה שליד גדרה או עם תל בטש, חוקר המקרא האמריקאי אדוארד רובינסון זיהה את עקרון ליד הכפר הערבי עאקיר (ועל כן המושבה מזכרת בתיה, נקראה בימי המוקדמים "עקרון"). במאה ה-19, חוקר ארץ ישראל יהוסף שוורץ טען שעקרון וקיסריה הן אותה עיר. כשהתחילה בשנות ה-80 החפירה בתל מקנה, חופרי האתר הציעו לזהותה עם עקרון. זיהוי זה נשאר שינוי במחלוקת עד למציאת הכתובת, המזכירה את "שר עקרון" ובכך נחתם הדיון המחקרי ונקבע כי תל מקנה היא אכן עקרון מהמקורות המקראיים והאשוריים.

תעתיק הכתובת. מקור: ויקיפדיה

הכתובת מזכירה חמישה משושלת מלכי עקרון לפי הסדר: אכיש, פדי, יסד, אדא ויער. המלכים אכיש ופדי מוזכרים כמלכי עקרון גם בכתובות מלכותיות אשוריות, כאשר פדי מוזכר במנסרת סנחריב המתארת את מסעו הצבאי לדיכוי המרד בארץ ב701 לפנה"ס. השם "אכיש" מופיע בספר שמואל א' כשמו של מלך גת. זוהי הפעם היחידה שבה מופיע שם של מלך פלשתי במקרא.

יש עניין רב בשמות המלכים לדיון במוצא הפלשתים. השמות פדי, יסד, אדא ויער הם שמות שמיים, אך השם אכיש הוא בעל בסיס לשוני יווני עתיק. טענה זו מהווה חיזוק לתיאוריה במחקר, על פיה מוצא הפלשתים הוא מכרתים או בערים היווניות באזור הים האגאי.

קשר אפשרי נוסף הוצע בעקבות שם האלה שלכבודה הוקדשה הכתובת וכנראה גם המקדש. הכתובת מוקדשת לאלה בשם "פתגיה אדוניתו", אלה פלשתית שלא היתה מוכרת למחקר הארכיאולוגי וההיסטורי עד לגילוי הכתובת. ישנן תאוריות רבות לגבי מקורה התרבותי של פתגיה, ויש המציעים כי מקורה בתרבות יוון. הסבר אחד הוא הדמיון בין "פתגיה" ל"גאיה", ויש חוקרים אשר הציעו לקרוא את שם האלה כ"פתניה", וכך לזהות את שמה עם שם תואר מוכר למספר אלוהויות מינואיות ומיקניות קדומות.

Siluam Inscription
Siluam Inscription

תיאור השלמת נקבת השילוח שנכתב על ידי החופרים

Gezer Calander
Gezer Calander

לוח שנה וטבלות של אותיות אלפבית, כולם בכתב עברי קדום . כתובות אלו נחשבות לכתובות העתיקות ביותר של הכתב העברי הקדום

Lachish relief
Lachish relief

סיפור כיבוש לכיש כפי שמתואר על ידי האשורים (סנחריב)

Marnpetah Stele
Marnpetah Stele

אסטלת ניצחון מצרית של פרעה מרנפתח, בנו של רעמסס השני, בשובו מאחד ממסעות הכיבוש שלו ובו מוזכר לראשונה השם ״ישראל״

Tel Dan Inscription
Tel Dan Inscription

כתובת תל דן היא כתובת ניצחון כתובה בארמית, שבה מתפאר אחד ממלכי ארם בעקבות ניצחון על ממלכת ישראל

בכתובת ישנו אזכור חוץ מקראי ראשון ל״בית דוד״

Mesha Stele
Mesha Stele

The Mesha Stele is notable for being one of the most significant and extensive ancient inscriptions in the Hebrew language. The text on the stele describes the military victories and accomplishments of King Mesha of Moab, who was a ruler in the region during the 9th century BCE.

Where is ancient Jerusalem?
Where is ancient Jerusalem?

ויכוח על ראשית ימיה של ירושלים ועל השאלה מי ומתי הפך אותה לעיר מבוצרת?

"Jerubba'al" inscription
"Jerubba'al" inscription
Mt. Ebal plate
Mt. Ebal plate

לוחית העופרת המקופלת בהר עיבל היא ממצא ארכאולוגי של לוחית עופרת קטנה, ונטען לגביה כי היא מתקופת הברונזה המאוחרת, וכי כתובה עליה הכתובת העברית הקדומה ביותר שהתגלתה אי פעם

The Origins of the Philistines
The Origins of the Philistines
Was there a united monarchy?
Was there a united monarchy?

האם ישראל ויהודה היו אי פעם מאוחדות?

When did Edom emerge?
When did Edom emerge?
Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
Hurvat Qiafa Ostracon
Hurvat Qiafa Ostracon
Ashbaal ben Bada' inscription
Ashbaal ben Bada' inscription
The location of Ciklag?
The location of Ciklag?

הצגת כל האפשרויות למיקומה של ציקלג המקראית

Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
Yosef Garfinkel
Yosef Garfinkel
Amihai Mazar
Amihai Mazar
Oded Lipschits
Oded Lipschits
Aren Maeir
Aren Maeir
Yuval Gadot
Yuval Gadot
Ayelet Gilboa
Ayelet Gilboa
Alexander Fantalkin
Alexander Fantalkin
Saar Ganor
Saar Ganor
Erez Ben-Yosef
Erez Ben-Yosef
Nahum
Nehemiah
Ezra
Esther
Lamentations
Ecclesiastes
Songs of Songs
Ruth
Psalms
Malachi
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Mentioned in bible
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Finding
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